Skip to main content

Table 1 Surgical inflammation could be viewed as a high-degree stress response of the patient composed of three overlapping successive phenotypes

From: Surgical inflammatory stress: the embryo takes hold of the reins again

INFLAMMATORY PHENOTYPES IN SURGICAL INFLAMMATION
NEUROGENIC IMMUNE ENDOCRINE
- Stress sensation - Bone marrow-related response - Epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells
- Inflammatory pain - Hematopoietic stem cell activation - Mesenchymal stem cell activation
- Fight-to-flight effect - Signaling molecules: - Fibrocytes
- Analgesia  * Chemokines -Endothelial progenitor cells
- Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical activation  * Toll-like receptors - Signaling molecules:
   * Cytokines  * Chemokines and their receptors
- Sympatico-adrenal medullary activation - Leukocyte activation - Anabolic hormones
- Tachycardia - Bacterial translocation  * Insulin
- Shock - Enzymatic stress  * GH
- Ischemia-reperfusion - Acute phase response  * IGF1
- Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis activation - Coagulaton/Complement system activation - CARS
   - Resolution
- Hydroelectrolytic alterations - Coagulopathy  * Lipoxin
- Interstitial edema - Dyslipidemia  * Resolvins
- Increased lymph flow - SIRS/MODS  * Protectins
- Hypoxia - Lymph node activation - Angiogenesis/vasculogenesis
- Anaerobic acidosis - Local stress response by leukocytes - Blood capillaries
- Hypothermia - Local cholesterol-derived hormones - Specialezed epithelium
  - Hypercatabolism - Energetic stress
  - Hypermetabolism - Oxidative phosphorylation
   - Centralization of neuroendocrine functions
   - PTSD
  1. CARS: Compensatory Anti-inflammatory Response Syndrome. SIRS/MODS: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. PTSD: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.