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Table 2 The model proposed description of ECG skin electrodes as “UP” and “DOWN” instead of conventional “positive” and “negative” electrodes

From: A vector-free ECG interpretation with P, QRS & T waves as unbalanced transitions between stable configurations of the heart electric field during P-R, S-T & T-P segments

ECG leads   DOWN (-) Heart parts along the lead path UP (+)
Bipolar Einthowen leads I. Right arm Right ventricle wall Septum Left ventricle wall Left arm
II Atria Septum and walls Apex Left foot
III Left arm
Unipolar leads from extremities aVL Between right arm & left foot Right ventricle wall Septum Left ventricle wall Left arm
aVR Between left arm & left foot Left ventricle wall Septum Atria Right arm
aVF Zpper thoracic aperture, nuchal area Atria Septum and walls Apex Left foot
Precordial chest leads V1-2 Central terminal Deep heart structures Septum Atria Positions on the chest front
V3-4 Anteroseptal
V5-6 Left ventricle wall
Bipolar triaxiall leads X R thoracic wall Right ventricle wall Septum Left ventricle wall L thoracic wall
Y Upper thoracic aperture, nuchal area Atria Septum and walls Apex Left foot
Z Sternal thoracic wall Ventricle wall Septum Ventricle wall Dorzal thoracic wall