Comparison of mathematically optimized protocols for equilibration of human oocytes with EG. All of the procedures terminated at a goal state with sf/wf = 30, which is equivalent to an intracellular EG molality of 9 Osm/kg, or a molar concentration of about 6 mol/L. The red line shows results from our previous study , which involved piecewise linear parameterization of m1(τ) and m2(τ) and a goal state fixed at the isotonic cell volume. The orange line shows results for the same piecewise linear parameterization of m1(τ) and m2(τ), but with a goal state that was not fixed at a specified final volume. The green and blue lines show two-step and three-step piecewise constant procedures, which also had goal states that were not fixed at a specific final volume. The horizontal dotted lines in the top figure show the osmotic tolerance limits. Note that the nondimensional EG concentration m2 can be converted to molal units by multiplying by 0.3 Osm/kg.