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Table 1 Calculated velocity of retrograde propagation (θr) as compared to that for antegrade propagation (θa) for cardiac muscle (CM) and smooth muscle (SM).

From: Propagated repolarization of simulated action potentials in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle

   2-Cell Chain (Cardiac) 5-Cell Chain (cm/sec)
No. of GJ-Channels Rgj (MΩ) Threshold* (nA) θr (cm/s) CM SM
θr θa θr θa
0 # # ## 32 ## 3.7
1 10,000 # # ## 38 ## 6.8
10 1,000 95.4 7.1 ## 55 ## 13
100 100 15.8 30 50 115 73 42
1000 10 5.4 75 86 550 114 820
10,000 1 5.6 750 200 3000 400 3600
  1. * Pulse duration was held constant at 1.0 ms.
  2. # Second cell (A1) failed to repolarize.
  3. # # Some cells failed to repolarize.
  4. Velocities of antegrade propagation (θa) were taken from previously published data [17,18].