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Table 1 Highlights of some relevant literature (abbreviations expanded in the text)

From: Moderate exercise and chronic stress produce counteractive effects on different areas of the brain by acting through various neurotransmitter receptor subtypes: A hypothesis

Areas, Author (Year) Summary Relevance
A. Origin of the idea
Sarbadhikari (1995a) [1]
Exercise reduces behavioral and EEG effects of stress Mechanism to be determined
B. Stress and lateralization
Mandal et al. (1996), Atchely et al. (2003); Neveu and Merlot (2003); Yurgelun-Todd & Ross (2006) [2&6]
Definite lateralization effects observed for affect and stress Stress acts in a lateralized fashion; lateralization of emotion in depression; lateralized effects of stress may act at cellular levels
C. Chaos and nonlinear dynamics in depression
Toro et al. (1999); Levine et al. (2000); Thomasson et al. (2000); Jeong (2002) [7–10]
Chaotic oscillations in the brain may account for many conditions including depression, where there is proven correlation between clinical and electrophysiological dimensions, and associations between clinical remission and bifurcation are present Chaotic oscillations form one of the mechanisms for depression
D. Exercise, lateralization and nonlinear dynamics
Petruzzello et al. (2001); Kyriazis (2003) [11,12]
Exercise influences affective responsiveness by regional brain activation and also increases physiological complexity in the brain Exercise acts in a lateralized fashion and increases complexity, unlike stress
E. Nonlinear dynamics linking various physiological and pathological processes
Sarbadhikari and Chakrabarty (2001); Glass (2001); Savi (2005) [13–15]
Nonlinear dynamics can be the underlying commonalty between depression, exercise and lateralization Depression, exercise and lateralization may all be nonlinearly linked; Stress and Exercise may operate counteractively through the same systems
F. Neurotransmitter receptor subtypes have varied functions and distributions
Tecott (2000); Pediconi et al. (1993); Bortolozzi et al (2003); Xu et al. (2005); Fukumoto et al. (2005), et al [16–22]
Receptor subtypes for all neurotransmitters; asymmetric distribution of acetylcholine and monoamine receptors in mammalian brain Same neurotransmitter may act in opposing ways by binding with different receptor subtypes; asymmetric distributions of various neurotransmitters are possible in the brain
G. Cellular level interactions involving BDNF and CREB
Cotman et al. (2002); Garoflos et al. (2005) [23, 24]
BDNF increases with Exercise and decreases with Stress; phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB and increased BDNF expression are positively correlated BDNF and CREB may be intermediaries for activating the various receptor subtypes
H. Integrating hypothesis
Shenal et al. (2003) [25]
LF, RF and RP interactions in the brain are responsible for the manifestation of stress effects LA/RA/RP/LP quadratic interactions could give rise to cross-coupling of the systems
I. Detailed expositions
Sarbadhikari (2005a, b) [26, 27]
Depressive and dementive disorders can be caused by nonlinear disturbances in lateralization Stress and Exercise may operate counteractively through the same systems