ML and LS fits. Lung cancer incidence rates for the European American males born in the 1880s. The superposed curves show the fitted hazards of the carcinogenesis model (7) based on the MLE and least squares. In the fitting process, N0 = 1010, δ = 0, n = 2 γ
= 10-4 were kept constant. The initial value for the remaining parameters were π
= 0.97, γ
= 0.2, ν = 10-6.5 and μ = 10-5.