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Table 2 Amino acid nutrition therapy

From: Activation instead of blocking mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry is a preferred modality in the long term treatment of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS): a commentary

Supplemental Ingredient Restored Brain Chemical Addictive Substance Abuse Amino Acid Deficiency Symptoms Expected Behavior Change
D-Phenylalanine or DL-Phenylalanine Enkephalins, Endorphins Heroin, Alcohol, Marijuana, Sweets, Starches, Chocolate, Tobacco Most Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) conditions sensitive to physical or emotional pain. Crave comfort and pleasure. Desire certain food or drugs. D-Phenylalaine is a known enkephalinease inhibitor. Reward stimulation. Anti-craving. Mild anti-depression. Mild improved energy and focus. D-Phenylalaine promontes pain relief, increases pleasure.
L-Phenylalanine or L-Tyrosine Norepinephrine, Dopamine Caffeine, Speed, Cocaine, Marijuana, Aspartame, Chocolate, Alcohol, Tobacco, Sweets, Starches Most RDS conditions. Depression, low energy. Lack of focus and concentration. Attention-deficit disorder. Reward stimulation. Anti-craving. Anti-depression. Increased energy. Improved mental focus.
L-Tryptophan or 5 hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) Serotonin Sweets, Alcohol, Starch, Ecstasy, Marijuana, Chocolate, Tobacco Low self esteem. Obsessive/compulsive behaviors. Irritability or rage. Sleep problems. Afternoon or evening cravings. Negativity. Heat intolerance. Fibromyalgia. Seasonal affective disorder. Anti-craving. Anti-depression. Anti-insomnia. Improved appetite control. Improvement in all mood and other serotonin deficiency syndromes.
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) GABA Valium, Alcohol, Marijuana, Tobacco, Sweetes, Starches Feeling of being stressed out. Nervous. Tense muscles. Trouble relaxing. Promotes calmness. Promotes relaxation.
L-Glutamine GABA (mild enhancement). Fuel source for entire brain Sweets, Starches, Alcohol Stress. Mood swings. Hypoglycemia. Anti-craving, anti-stress. Levels blood sugar and mood. GABA (mild enhancement). Fuel source for entire brain.
  1. Table 2 Comments: Rhodiola rosea has been added to the formula and is a known Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor. This provides more synaptic dopamine in the VTA/NAc.
  2. Source: Perfumi M, Mattioli L. Adaptogenic and central system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice. Phytother Res. 21 2007 37–43
  3. Chromium salts – This has been added to the formula to enhance insulin sensitivity and resultant brain concentration of serotonin.
  4. Note: To assist in amino acid nutritional therapy, the use of a multivitamin/mineral formula is recommended. Many vitamins and minerals serve as co-factors in neurotransmitter synthesis. They also serve to restore general balance, vitality and well-being to the RDS patient who typically is in a state of poor nutritional health. The utilization of GABA is limited due to its polar nature and ability to cross the blood brain barrier. Glutamate is used in a low level only to prevent over-inhibition of enkephalin breakdown and subsequent inhibition of GABAergic spiny neurons of the substantia nigra.