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Table 5 Down syndrome: Clinical and model metabolic changes (%)*

From: A mathematical model of glutathione metabolism

substrate clinical change CBS × 1.5 H2O2 normal CBS × 1.5 H2O2 × 2.5
Hcy -24 -29 -35
Met -47 -5 -15
bCys 15 0.2 13
bGSH -14 0.2 -2
SAM -18 -21 -48
SAH -22 -26 -49
Cys -- 2 -55
5mTHF -- 29 117
CH2-THF -- -14 -51
10fTHF -- -7 -34
  1. * Clinical data in Column 1 are % changes in blood levels of metabolites averaged over 42 Down patients compared to 38 control patients [13]. Columns 2 and 3 show % changes in model values. In columns 2 and 3, bCys and bGSH indicate model blood concentrations, and the other metabolites are intracellular. Column 2 shows the effect of increasing the dosage of CBS by a factor of 1.5. Column 3 shows the effect of increased CBS combined with moderate oxidative stress. For discussion, see the text.