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Table 6 Autism: Clinical and model metabolic changes (%)*

From: A mathematical model of glutathione metabolism

substrate clinical change 1 clinical change 2 H2O2 × 5 H2O2 × 5 adenosine up
Hcy -5 -9 -19 -39
Met -26 -39 -20 -26
bCys -20 -19 -9 -9
bGSH -32 -46 -35 -34
SAM -10 -22 -61 -22
SAH 24 49 -54 24
bGSH/bGSSG -48 -66 -88 -88
5mTHF -- -- 154 144
vDNMT -- -- -6 -10
  1. *Clinical data in columns 1 and 2 are average changes in blood levels of metabolites in autistic children compared to control patients [14, 15]. Columns 3 and 4 show % changes in model values. In columns 3 and 4 bCys, bGSH and bGSSG indicate model blood concentrations, and the other metabolites are intracellular. vDNMT is the velocity of the DNA methylation reaction (μM/hr). Column 3 shows the effect of severe oxidative stress that is a factor of 5 higher than normal. Column 4 shows the effect of adding increased adenosine concentration to the oxidative stress. For discussion, see the text.