inactivation pathways. Figure 9: ICa,Linactivation pathways. Voltage clamp protocol used is a 50 ms step pulse to 10 mv from a holding potential of -40 mv. Both model generated results and the data are normalized for easy comparison (1) Control case where both voltage and calcium dependent inactivation pathways are intact. Solid trace is the model-generated result and the dotted line represents the data obtained from Dr. Philip. T. Palade's lab; (2) voltage-dependent inactivation exists however Ca2+-dependent inactivation is only via ICa,Lself-inhibition without RyR release; (3) Only voltage-dependent inactivation pathway preserved by blocking all Ca2+ dependent pathways.