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Table 1 Categories of animal use in science and research[16]

From: Animal models and conserved processes

1. As predictive models for human disease
2. As predictive models to evaluate human exposure safety in the context of pharmacology and toxicology (e.g., in drug testing)
3. As sources of ‘spare parts’ (e.g., aortic valve replacements for humans)
4. As bioreactors (e.g., as factories for the production of insulin, or monoclonal antibodies, or the fruits of genetic engineering)
5. As sources of tissue in order to study basic physiological principles
6. For dissection and study in education and medical training
7. As heuristic devices to prompt new biological/biomedical hypotheses
8. For the benefit of other nonhuman animals
9. For the pursuit of scientific knowledge in and of itself