The Pinocchio effect. The Pinocchio effect known in shape analysis, is the large change of limited features or landmarks in an object or organism. (a) Pinocchio honest. (b) Pinocchio lying. The tip of the Nose grows forward by an amount of 30 mm. (c) Local landmark superimposition differences after a LSS superimposition or Procrustes-fit of (b) onto (a). The color-scale ranges from 0 mm (white) to 2 mm (dark red) to more than 2 mm (black) difference. Note the smearing out effect of the 'affected' landmarks in the nose onto the 'unaffected' landmarks on the rest of the face after superimposition. (d) Same after robust superimposition of (b) onto (a). Note the perfect alignment of 'unaffected' landmarks. (d) Also depicts the dysmorphogram using a color-scale such that everything except white reflects outliers to some degree with black being the strongest outliers.