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Table 1 Material properties used in the Biot theory

From: Theoretically proposed optimal frequency for ultrasound induced cartilage restoration

Cytoplasm
 Bulk Medium
  Bulk Modulus (Pa) K d 500 [26]
  Poisson’s Ratio ν 0.38 [42]
  Bulk Density (kg/m3) ρ d 300 [57]
  Permeability (m2) k p 7 x 10−19 \( {\mu}_f/\overline{\omega} \) [53]
  Porosity є p 0.75 [57]
  Biot-Willis Coefficient α B 0.9999 1-K/K s
  Tortuosity Factor τ 1.2 [58]
 Fluid Phase
  Density (kg/m3) ρ f 992.52 [59]
  Vicosity (Pa∙s) μ f 0.7 x 10−3 [60]
  Compressibility (1/Pa) χ f 4.35 x 10−10 1/K f
Nucleus
 Bulk Medium
  Bulk Modulus (Pa) K d 2 x 103 [39]
  Poisson’s Ratio ν 0.38 [26]
  Bulk Density (kg/m3) ρ d 400 [26]
  Permeability (m2) k p 7 x 10−19 \( {\mu}_f/\overline{\omega} \)
  Porosity є p 0.65 [61]
  Biot-Willis Coefficient α B 0.9996 1-K d /K s
  Tortuosity Factor τ 2 [58]
Fluid Phase
See cytoplasm fluid phase