Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fig. 3 | Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling

Fig. 3

From: Outside-host phage therapy as a biological control against environmental infectious diseases

Fig. 3

Bifurcation diagrams of the model dynamics with a competing pathogenic phage-resistant bacteria population. The panels represent the pathogen (P), the phage-resistant (B) the bacteriophage (F), susceptible host (S), the non-resistant infected hosts (I), the phage-resistant infected hosts (I B ), population densities for the phage-resistant transmission rate to the susceptible hosts, 0 < β B  < 10− 10. The x-axis is log10 scale. When the phage is absent (o) the pathogens drive the host extinct. When the phage is introduced into the system (*) pathogen P is driven on a low level. Now, the abundance of the pathogen B drives the disease dynamics. With increasing infectivity the host population size deceases. The number of the diseases caused by pathogen P remains low due to the phage-control. The disease occurs still due to the increased abundance of the pathogen B. However, the increased infectivity on β B ultimately drives the host population extinct. The parameter values used are shown in Table 1

Back to article page