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Table 1 Multiple hypothesis testing

From: UGM: a more stable procedure for large-scale multiple testing problems, new solutions to identify oncogene

 Declared non-significantDeclared significantTotal
True null hypothesesUVm0
Non-true null hypothesesTSm1(m-m0)
 m-RRM
  1. We need to consider testing the m (null) hypothesis, where m0 is true and the rest m1 = m-m0 is false. After testing the m (null) hypotheses, there are R rejected and m-R not rejected null hypotheses. m (null) hypotheses were committed into four parts by type I error and type II error. They are U, V, S, and T. U and S denote the number of correct tests in m. V denotes the number of type I error tests in m. T represents the number of type II error in m, and R is used to represent observable random variables. U, V, S, and T are unobservable random variables
  2. In the 1990s, Benjamini and Hochberg put forward the FDR control method. FDR control method uses correction theory to correct the first type of error in multiple hypothesis testing. In the rejected events, FDR controls the prospective rate of falsely rejected null events (type I errors) [15]. FDR is a relatively conservative comparison method, with greater power, compared with FWER control. FDR is outlined as follows