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  1. Content type: Research

    In this paper we propose a chemical physics mechanism for the initiation of the glycolytic switch commonly known as the Warburg hypothesis, whereby glycolytic activity terminating in lactate continues even in ...

    Authors: Edward A Rietman, Douglas E Friesen, Philip Hahnfeldt, Robert Gatenby, Lynn Hlatky and Jack A Tuszynski

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:39

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  2. Content type: Research

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) belongs to a group of heterogeneous disease with distinct patterns of behavior and presentation. TNFRSF10B, a tumor suppressor gene mapped on chromosome 8. Mutation in candidate gene...

    Authors: Rana Adnan Tahir, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Naureen Aslam Khattak, Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:38

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  3. Content type: Research

    Alpha 1- antitrypsin (α1AT) a 54 kDa glycoprotein is a protease inhibitor. In the absence of α1AT, elastase released by lung macrophages, was not inhibited and lead to elastin breakdown and pulmonary problems ...

    Authors: Nazanin Pirooznia, Sadegh Hasannia, Seyed Shahriar Arab, Abbas Sahebghadam Lotfi, Mostafa Ghanei and Abbas Shali

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:36

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  4. Content type: Research

    Despite the rapid advancement of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), adverse events leading to deaths have been frequently reported in patients implanted with LVADs, including bleeding, infection, thrombo...

    Authors: ChiWei Ong, Socrates Dokos, BeeTing Chan, Einly Lim, Amr Al Abed, NoorAzuanBinAbu Osman, Suhaini Kadiman and Nigel H Lovell

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:35

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  5. Content type: Research

    Estimation of leaf productivity in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) is crucial for evaluating the ecological role of this important seagrass species. Although leaf marking techniques are widely used to obtain estimat...

    Authors: Héctor Echavarría-Heras, Elena Solana-Arellano, Cecilia Leal-Ramírez and Oscar Castillo

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:34

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  6. Content type: Research

    Haemodialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with end stage renal failure. It is becoming more appreciated that haemodialysis patients exhibit higher rates of multiple end organ ...

    Authors: MohamedTarek Eldehni, Aghogho Odudu and ChristopherWilliam McIntyre

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:33

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  7. Content type: Research

    The resistance of the bone against damage by repairing itself and adapting to environmental conditions is its most important property. These adaptive changes are regulated by physiological process commonly cal...

    Authors: Ahmed Idhammad, Abdelmounaïm Abdali and Noureddine Alaa

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:32

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  8. Content type: Research

    Knowledge of natural tumour growth is valuable for understanding tumour biology, optimising screening programs, prognostication, optimal scheduling of chemotherapy, and assessing tumour spread. However, mathem...

    Authors: Esmaeil Mehrara, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Viktor Johanson, Lars Kölby, Ragnar Hultborn and Peter Bernhardt

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:31

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  9. Content type: Research

    As the human infections with novel influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported from several different provinces in China, the pandemic potential of the virus has been questioned. The presence of human-to-human ...

    Authors: Hiroshi Nishiura, Kenji Mizumoto and Keisuke Ejima

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:30

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  10. Content type: Research

    As microtubules are essential for cell growth and division, its constituent protein β-tubulin has been a popular target for various treatments, including cancer chemotherapy. There are several isotypes of huma...

    Authors: Siamak Ravanbakhsh, Melissa Gajewski, Russell Greiner and Jack A Tuszynski

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:29

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  11. Content type: Research

    Determining the fate of inhaled contaminants in the human respiratory system has challenged scientists for years. Human and animal studies have provided some data, but there is a paucity of data for toxic contami...

    Authors: Jacky A Rosati Rowe, Ray Burton, George McGregor, Rob McCauley, Wei Tang and Richard Spencer

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:28

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  12. Content type: Research

    Somitogenesis is a fundamental characteristic feature of development in various animal embryos. Molecular evidence has proved that the Notch and Wnt pathways play important roles in regulating the process of s...

    Authors: Hong-yan Wang, Yan-xin Huang, Yun-feng Qi, Yu Zhang, Yong-li Bao, Lu-guo Sun, Li-hua Zheng, Yu-wei Zhang, Zhi-qiang Ma and Yu-xin Li

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:27

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  13. Content type: Research

    Incorporating structural elements of thermostable homologs can greatly improve the thermostability of a mesophilic protein. Despite the effectiveness of this method, applying it is often hampered. First, it re...

    Authors: Ming Liu, Hongqiu He and Jiguo Su

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:26

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  14. Content type: Research

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, progressive liver disease, characterized by continuing hepatocellular inflammation and necrosis. A subgroup of AIH patients presents specific autoantibodies to soluble ...

    Authors: Alessandro Paiardini and Stefano Pascarella

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:25

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  15. Content type: Research

    blaVEB-1 is an integron-located extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene initially detected in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from south-east Asia. Several recent studies have reported that VEB-1-p...

    Authors: Abdelmonaem Messaoudi, Hatem Belguith and Jeannette Ben Hamida

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:22

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  16. Content type: Research

    The pathology of the Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is detected by a clinician through maneuvers consisting of a series of consecutive head turns that trigger the symptoms of vertigo in patient. A...

    Authors: Santiago Campos-Barreiro and Jesús López-Fidalgo

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:21

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  17. Content type: Research

    In vitro aggregating brain cell cultures containing all types of brain cells have been shown to be useful for neurotoxicological investigations. The cultures are used for the detection of nervous system‐specific ...

    Authors: Maria Renner, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich and Annette Kopp-Schneider

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:19

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  18. Content type: Research

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognises unmethylated CpG DNA and activates a signalling cascade, leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-12 via the adaptor protein M...

    Authors: Wei Zhou, Yan Li, Xichun Pan, Yuan Gao, Beiping Li, Zhengliang Qiu, Long Liang, Hong Zhou and Junjie Yue

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:18

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  19. Content type: Research

    Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora is the causal agent of witches’ broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). When the mitochondrial genome of this fungus had been completely sequenced, ...

    Authors: Bruno Andrade, Catiane Souza and Aristóteles Góes-Neto

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:15

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  20. Content type: Software

    IMGT/Collier-de-Perles is a tool that allows the user to analyze and draw two-dimensional graphical representations (or IMGT Collier de Perles) of protein domains (e.g., hydropathy plots). The IMGT/Collier-de-...

    Authors: Dimitrios Vlachakis, Christos Feidakis, Vasileios Megalooikonomou and Sophia Kossida

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:14

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  21. Content type: Research

    Lead is a heavy metal and important environmental toxicant and nerve poison that can destruction many functions of the nervous system. Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead i...

    Authors: Shuangxing Hou, Lianfang Yuan, Pengpeng Jin, Bojun Ding, Na Qin, Li Li, Xuedong Liu, Zhongliang Wu, Gang Zhao and Yanchun Deng

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:13

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  22. Content type: Review

    According to Berenblum’s two-stage hypothesis, the first stage in carcinogenesis is the production of benign premalignant lesions. Between this initiation stage and the formation of a malignant tumor there is ...

    Authors: Richmond T Prehn and Liisa M Prehn

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:12

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  23. Content type: Research

    Spinal pattern generators (SPG) are neural networks in the spinal cord that do not require a central input from the brain to generate a motor output. We wanted to determine whether SPG can adapt to the changin...

    Authors: Sook-Yee Chong, Heiko Wagner and Arne Wulf

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:9

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  24. Content type: Commentary

    Experiments have shown that the intracellular pH of many cells rises to a maximum at the onset of mitosis, subsequently decreasing 0.3 to 0.5 pH units by the end of mitosis. This result, and observations that ...

    Authors: L John Gagliardi and Daniel H Shain

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:8

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  25. Content type: Research

    There are two main reasons for drug withdrawals at the various levels of the development path – hepatic and cardiac toxicity. The latter one is mainly connected with the proarrhythmic potency and according to ...

    Authors: Kamil Fijorek, Nikunjkumar Patel, Łukasz Klima, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz and Sebastian Polak

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:7

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  26. Content type: Review

    The surgical inflammatory response can be a type of high-grade acute stress response associated with an increasingly complex trophic functional system for using oxygen. This systemic neuro-immune-endocrine res...

    Authors: Maria-Angeles Aller, Jose-Ignacio Arias, Isabel Prieto, Carlos Gilsanz, Ana Arias, Heping Yang and Jaime Arias

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:6

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  27. Content type: Research

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) system is a demand control system, with the demand coming from the organism, since the products of the common myeloid and lymphoid progenitor (CMP, CLP respectively) cells are...

    Authors: Marc Mangel and Michael B Bonsall

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:5

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  28. Content type: Research

    During the very early stage of the 2009 pandemic, mass chemoprophylaxis was implemented as part of containment measure. The purposes of the present study were to systematically review the retrospective studies...

    Authors: Kenji Mizumoto, Hiroshi Nishiura and Taro Yamamoto

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:4

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  29. Content type: Research

    Schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs worldwide and can be difficult to diagnose. It is the foremost neurological disorder leading to suicide among patients in both developed and underdevel...

    Authors: Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Naureen Aslam Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:3

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  30. Content type: Research

    Lung cancer is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Major signalling pathways that could play significant role in lung cancer therapy include (1) Growth promoting pathways (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/...

    Authors: Syeda Naqsh e Zahra, Naureen Aslam Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:1

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  31. Content type: Research

    The theory of speciation is dominated by adaptationist thinking, with less attention to mechanisms that do not affect species adaptation. Degeneracy – the imperfect specificity of interactions between diverse ...

    Authors: Nicholas Atamas, Michael S Atamas, Faina Atamas and Sergei P Atamas

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:56

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  32. Content type: Research

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol) is the most widely used over-the-counter or prescription painkiller in the world. Acetaminophen is metabolized in the liver where a toxic byproduct is produced that ca...

    Authors: Rotem Ben-Shachar, Yifei Chen, Shishi Luo, Catherine Hartman, Michael Reed and H Frederik Nijhout

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:55

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  33. Content type: Research

    To analyze the p42.3 gene expression in gastric cancer (GC) cell, find the relationship between protein structure and function, establish the regulatory network of p42.3 protein molecule and then to obtain the...

    Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Chunlei Lu, Zhigang Shang, Rui Xing, Li Shi and Youyong Lv

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:53

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  34. Content type: Research

    This paper analyzes a new semiphysiological ionic model, used recently to study reexitations and reentry in cardiac tissue [I.R. Cantalapiedra et al, PRE 82 011907 (2010)]. The aim of the model is to reproduce ac...

    Authors: Angelina Peñaranda, Inma R Cantalapiedra, Jean Bragard and Blas Echebarria

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:50

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  35. Content type: Research

    A detailed theoretical model that combines the conventional viscoelastic continuum description of cell motion with a dynamic active stress is presented. The model describes the ameboid cells movement comprisin...

    Authors: Mehrnush Mehrayin, Farhad Farmanzad, Masoud Mozafari, Daryoosh Vashaee and Lobat Tayebi

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:49

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  36. Content type: Research

    The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of the electromechanical behavior of the rat ventricular myocyte to investigate the various factors influencing its contractile response.

    Authors: Abhilash Krishna, Miguel Valderrábano, Philip T Palade and John W Clark Jr

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:48

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  37. Content type: Research

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) provides a...

    Authors: Ya-jing Guo, Jiang Chen, Xin-gui Xiong, Dan Wu, Hao Zhu and Qing-hua Liang

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:47

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  38. Content type: Research

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases with increased blood glucose concentration as the main symptom. This can be caused by a relative or a total lack of insulin which is produced by the β‐cells in t...

    Authors: Martina Gallenberger, Wolfgangzu Castell, Burkhard A Hense and Christina Kuttler

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:46

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