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  1. Content type: Research

    As the human infections with novel influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported from several different provinces in China, the pandemic potential of the virus has been questioned. The presence of human-to-human ...

    Authors: Hiroshi Nishiura, Kenji Mizumoto and Keisuke Ejima

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:30

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  2. Content type: Research

    As microtubules are essential for cell growth and division, its constituent protein β-tubulin has been a popular target for various treatments, including cancer chemotherapy. There are several isotypes of huma...

    Authors: Siamak Ravanbakhsh, Melissa Gajewski, Russell Greiner and Jack A Tuszynski

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:29

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  3. Content type: Research

    Determining the fate of inhaled contaminants in the human respiratory system has challenged scientists for years. Human and animal studies have provided some data, but there is a paucity of data for toxic contami...

    Authors: Jacky A Rosati Rowe, Ray Burton, George McGregor, Rob McCauley, Wei Tang and Richard Spencer

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:28

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  4. Content type: Research

    Somitogenesis is a fundamental characteristic feature of development in various animal embryos. Molecular evidence has proved that the Notch and Wnt pathways play important roles in regulating the process of s...

    Authors: Hong-yan Wang, Yan-xin Huang, Yun-feng Qi, Yu Zhang, Yong-li Bao, Lu-guo Sun, Li-hua Zheng, Yu-wei Zhang, Zhi-qiang Ma and Yu-xin Li

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:27

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  5. Content type: Research

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, progressive liver disease, characterized by continuing hepatocellular inflammation and necrosis. A subgroup of AIH patients presents specific autoantibodies to soluble ...

    Authors: Alessandro Paiardini and Stefano Pascarella

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:25

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  6. Content type: Research

    Incorporating structural elements of thermostable homologs can greatly improve the thermostability of a mesophilic protein. Despite the effectiveness of this method, applying it is often hampered. First, it re...

    Authors: Ming Liu, Hongqiu He and Jiguo Su

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:26

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  7. Content type: Research

    blaVEB-1 is an integron-located extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene initially detected in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from south-east Asia. Several recent studies have reported that VEB-1-p...

    Authors: Abdelmonaem Messaoudi, Hatem Belguith and Jeannette Ben Hamida

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:22

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  8. Content type: Research

    The pathology of the Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is detected by a clinician through maneuvers consisting of a series of consecutive head turns that trigger the symptoms of vertigo in patient. A...

    Authors: Santiago Campos-Barreiro and Jesús López-Fidalgo

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:21

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  9. Content type: Research

    In vitro aggregating brain cell cultures containing all types of brain cells have been shown to be useful for neurotoxicological investigations. The cultures are used for the detection of nervous system‐specific ...

    Authors: Maria Renner, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich and Annette Kopp-Schneider

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:19

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  10. Content type: Research

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognises unmethylated CpG DNA and activates a signalling cascade, leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-12 via the adaptor protein M...

    Authors: Wei Zhou, Yan Li, Xichun Pan, Yuan Gao, Beiping Li, Zhengliang Qiu, Long Liang, Hong Zhou and Junjie Yue

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:18

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  11. Content type: Research

    Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora is the causal agent of witches’ broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). When the mitochondrial genome of this fungus had been completely sequenced, ...

    Authors: Bruno Andrade, Catiane Souza and Aristóteles Góes-Neto

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:15

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  12. Content type: Software

    IMGT/Collier-de-Perles is a tool that allows the user to analyze and draw two-dimensional graphical representations (or IMGT Collier de Perles) of protein domains (e.g., hydropathy plots). The IMGT/Collier-de-...

    Authors: Dimitrios Vlachakis, Christos Feidakis, Vasileios Megalooikonomou and Sophia Kossida

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:14

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  13. Content type: Research

    Lead is a heavy metal and important environmental toxicant and nerve poison that can destruction many functions of the nervous system. Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead i...

    Authors: Shuangxing Hou, Lianfang Yuan, Pengpeng Jin, Bojun Ding, Na Qin, Li Li, Xuedong Liu, Zhongliang Wu, Gang Zhao and Yanchun Deng

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:13

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  14. Content type: Review

    According to Berenblum’s two-stage hypothesis, the first stage in carcinogenesis is the production of benign premalignant lesions. Between this initiation stage and the formation of a malignant tumor there is ...

    Authors: Richmond T Prehn and Liisa M Prehn

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:12

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  15. Content type: Research

    Spinal pattern generators (SPG) are neural networks in the spinal cord that do not require a central input from the brain to generate a motor output. We wanted to determine whether SPG can adapt to the changin...

    Authors: Sook-Yee Chong, Heiko Wagner and Arne Wulf

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:9

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  16. Content type: Commentary

    Experiments have shown that the intracellular pH of many cells rises to a maximum at the onset of mitosis, subsequently decreasing 0.3 to 0.5 pH units by the end of mitosis. This result, and observations that ...

    Authors: L John Gagliardi and Daniel H Shain

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:8

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  17. Content type: Research

    There are two main reasons for drug withdrawals at the various levels of the development path – hepatic and cardiac toxicity. The latter one is mainly connected with the proarrhythmic potency and according to ...

    Authors: Kamil Fijorek, Nikunjkumar Patel, Łukasz Klima, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz and Sebastian Polak

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:7

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  18. Content type: Review

    The surgical inflammatory response can be a type of high-grade acute stress response associated with an increasingly complex trophic functional system for using oxygen. This systemic neuro-immune-endocrine res...

    Authors: Maria-Angeles Aller, Jose-Ignacio Arias, Isabel Prieto, Carlos Gilsanz, Ana Arias, Heping Yang and Jaime Arias

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:6

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  19. Content type: Research

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) system is a demand control system, with the demand coming from the organism, since the products of the common myeloid and lymphoid progenitor (CMP, CLP respectively) cells are...

    Authors: Marc Mangel and Michael B Bonsall

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:5

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  20. Content type: Research

    During the very early stage of the 2009 pandemic, mass chemoprophylaxis was implemented as part of containment measure. The purposes of the present study were to systematically review the retrospective studies...

    Authors: Kenji Mizumoto, Hiroshi Nishiura and Taro Yamamoto

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:4

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  21. Content type: Research

    Schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs worldwide and can be difficult to diagnose. It is the foremost neurological disorder leading to suicide among patients in both developed and underdevel...

    Authors: Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Naureen Aslam Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:3

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  22. Content type: Research

    Lung cancer is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Major signalling pathways that could play significant role in lung cancer therapy include (1) Growth promoting pathways (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/...

    Authors: Syeda Naqsh e Zahra, Naureen Aslam Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:1

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  23. Content type: Research

    The theory of speciation is dominated by adaptationist thinking, with less attention to mechanisms that do not affect species adaptation. Degeneracy – the imperfect specificity of interactions between diverse ...

    Authors: Nicholas Atamas, Michael S Atamas, Faina Atamas and Sergei P Atamas

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:56

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  24. Content type: Research

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol) is the most widely used over-the-counter or prescription painkiller in the world. Acetaminophen is metabolized in the liver where a toxic byproduct is produced that ca...

    Authors: Rotem Ben-Shachar, Yifei Chen, Shishi Luo, Catherine Hartman, Michael Reed and H Frederik Nijhout

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:55

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  25. Content type: Research

    To analyze the p42.3 gene expression in gastric cancer (GC) cell, find the relationship between protein structure and function, establish the regulatory network of p42.3 protein molecule and then to obtain the...

    Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Chunlei Lu, Zhigang Shang, Rui Xing, Li Shi and Youyong Lv

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:53

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  26. Content type: Research

    This paper analyzes a new semiphysiological ionic model, used recently to study reexitations and reentry in cardiac tissue [I.R. Cantalapiedra et al, PRE 82 011907 (2010)]. The aim of the model is to reproduce ac...

    Authors: Angelina Peñaranda, Inma R Cantalapiedra, Jean Bragard and Blas Echebarria

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:50

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  27. Content type: Research

    A detailed theoretical model that combines the conventional viscoelastic continuum description of cell motion with a dynamic active stress is presented. The model describes the ameboid cells movement comprisin...

    Authors: Mehrnush Mehrayin, Farhad Farmanzad, Masoud Mozafari, Daryoosh Vashaee and Lobat Tayebi

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:49

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  28. Content type: Research

    The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of the electromechanical behavior of the rat ventricular myocyte to investigate the various factors influencing its contractile response.

    Authors: Abhilash Krishna, Miguel Valderrábano, Philip T Palade and John W Clark Jr

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:48

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  29. Content type: Research

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) provides a...

    Authors: Ya-jing Guo, Jiang Chen, Xin-gui Xiong, Dan Wu, Hao Zhu and Qing-hua Liang

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:47

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  30. Content type: Research

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases with increased blood glucose concentration as the main symptom. This can be caused by a relative or a total lack of insulin which is produced by the β‐cells in t...

    Authors: Martina Gallenberger, Wolfgangzu Castell, Burkhard A Hense and Christina Kuttler

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:46

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  31. Content type: Research

    Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobici...

    Authors: Mohamed Khayet and Victoria Fernández

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:45

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  32. Content type: Research

    The H1N1 influenza A virus has been circulating in the human population for over 95 years, first manifesting itself in the pandemic of 1917–1918. Initial mortality was extremely high, but dropped exponentially...

    Authors: Robert W Carter and John C Sanford

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:42

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  33. Content type: Research

    This paper presents a computational model that describes the growth of the bone as a function of the proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. We have included the effects of the mecha...

    Authors: Carlos A Narváez-Tovar and Diego A Garzón-Alvarado

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:41

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  34. Content type: Research

    The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals a...

    Authors: Ray Greek and Mark J Rice

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:40

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  35. Content type: Research

    Develop and validate particular, concrete, and abstract yet plausible in silico mechanistic explanations for large intra- and interindividual variability observed for eleven bioequivalence study participants. ...

    Authors: Sean HJ Kim, Andre J Jackson, Rim Hur and C Anthony Hunt

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:39

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  36. Content type: Research

    We investigated the relationship of End-to-end distance between VH and VL with different peptide linkers and the activity of single-chain antibodies by computer-aided simulation. First, we developed (G4S)n (where...

    Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Shanhong Liu, Zhigang Shang, Li Shi and Jun Yun

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:38

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  37. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: Piernicola Pedicini, Rocchina Caivano, Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa, Lidia Strigari, Barbara Vischioni, Daniela Alterio, Marta Cremonesi, Francesca Botta, Antonio Nappi, Giuseppina Improta, Giovanni Storto, Alba Fiorentino, Marcello Benassi, Roberto Orecchia and Vincenzo Fusco

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:37

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    The original article was published in Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:23

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