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  1. The classification of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), using artificial intelligence (AI), has recently drawn the attention of the medical researchers. Using this approach, patients with myocardial infarction ca...

    Authors: Nader Salari, Shamarina Shohaimi, Farid Najafi, Meenakshii Nallappan and Isthrinayagy Karishnarajah

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:57

    Content type: Commentary

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  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) is involved in one of the major signaling pathways in cells, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. MK5 was discovered in 1998 by the gr...

    Authors: Inger Lindin, Yimingjiang Wuxiuer, Irina Kufareva, Ruben Abagyan, Ugo Moens, Ingebrigt Sylte and Aina Westrheim Ravna

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:56

    Content type: Research

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  3. The response to endotoxin (LPS), and subsequent signal transduction lead to the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by innate immune cells. Cells or organisms pretreated with endoto...

    Authors: Catalin Vasilescu, Mircea Olteanu, Paul Flondor and George A Calin

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:55

    Content type: Research

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  4. Rate-dependent effects on the C a2+ sub-system in a rat ventricular myocyte are investigated. Here, we employ a deterministic mathematical model describing various C a2+ signalling pathways under voltage clamp (V...

    Authors: Abhilash Krishna, Miguel Valderrábano, Philip T Palade and John W Clark Jr

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:54

    Content type: Research

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  5. We extend a physiologically-based lattice model for the transport and metabolism of drugs in the liver lobule (liver functional unit) to consider structural and spatial variability. We compare predicted drug c...

    Authors: Vahid Rezania, Rebeccah Marsh, Dennis Coombe and Jack Tuszynski

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:53

    Content type: Research

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  6. We develop a physiologically-based lattice model for the transport and metabolism of drugs in the functional unit of the liver, called the lobule. In contrast to earlier studies, we have emphasized the dominan...

    Authors: Vahid Rezania, Rebeccah Marsh, Dennis Coombe and Jack Tuszynski

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:52

    Content type: Research

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  7. The interest in cell membrane has grown drastically for their important role as controllers of biological functions in health and illness. In fact most important physiological processes are intimately related ...

    Authors: Noureddine Alaa and Hamid Lefraich

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:51

    Content type: Research

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  8. Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. T...

    Authors: Britta Göbel, Kerstin M Oltmanns and Matthias Chung

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:50

    Content type: Research

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  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Q (PTPRQ) is an unusual PTP that has intrinsic dephosphorylating activity for various phosphatidyl inositides instead of phospho-tyrosine substrates. Although PTPRQ w...

    Authors: Hwangseo Park, Keum Ran Yu, Bonsu Ku, Bo Yeon Kim and Seung Jun Kim

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:49

    Content type: Research

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  10. Hyperosmotic glucose is injected intravenously when an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) is initiated. The extent and time period of plasma volume expansion that occurs in response to the glucose load...

    Authors: Robert G Hahn, Thomas Nyström and Stefan Ljunggren

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:48

    Content type: Research

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  11. Gliomas are the most common types of brain cancer, well known for their aggressive proliferation and the invasive behavior leading to a high mortality rate. Several mathematical models have been developed for ...

    Authors: Maria Papadogiorgaki, Panagiotis Koliou, Xenofon Kotsiakis and Michalis E Zervakis

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:47

    Content type: Research

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  12. The most common bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, leads to glycemia normalization in most patients long before there is any appreciable weight loss. This effect is too large to be attributed purely ...

    Authors: Roland E Allen, Tyler D Hughes, Jia Lerd Ng, Roberto D Ortiz, Michel Abou Ghantous, Othmane Bouhali, Philippe Froguel and Abdelilah Arredouani

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:45

    Content type: Research

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  13. The application of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) against HIV can reduce and maintain viral load below detection limit in many patients. Continuous HAART, however, can have severe side effects. I...

    Authors: Leonardo Oña, Roger D Kouyos, Michael Lachmann and Sebastian Bonhoeffer

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:44

    Content type: Research

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  14. Theoretical biology encompasses a broad range of biological disciplines ranging from mathematical biology and biomathematics to philosophy of biology. Adopting a broad definition of "biology", Theoretical Biol...

    Authors: Hiroshi Nishiura, Edward A Rietman and Rongling Wu

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:43

    Content type: Editorial

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  15. There exists a very large literature suggesting that T cells come in a variety of species and that without the action of Tregs tumors would seldom survive inhibition by T cell effectors. We believe that much o...

    Authors: Richmond T Prehn and Liisa M Prehn

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:42

    Content type: Commentary

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  16. Recently, melanoma has become the most malignant and commonly occurring skin cancer. Melanoma is not only the major source (75%) of deaths related to skin cancer, but also it is hard to be treated by the conve...

    Authors: Jun Wang, Le Zhang, Chenyang Jing, Gang Ye, Hulin Wu, Hongyu Miao, Yukun Wu and Xiaobo Zhou

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:41

    Content type: Research

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  17. In this paper we propose a chemical physics mechanism for the initiation of the glycolytic switch commonly known as the Warburg hypothesis, whereby glycolytic activity terminating in lactate continues even in ...

    Authors: Edward A Rietman, Douglas E Friesen, Philip Hahnfeldt, Robert Gatenby, Lynn Hlatky and Jack A Tuszynski

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:39

    Content type: Research

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  18. Head and neck cancer (HNC) belongs to a group of heterogeneous disease with distinct patterns of behavior and presentation. TNFRSF10B, a tumor suppressor gene mapped on chromosome 8. Mutation in candidate gene...

    Authors: Rana Adnan Tahir, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Naureen Aslam Khattak, Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:38

    Content type: Research

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  19. Alpha 1- antitrypsin (α1AT) a 54 kDa glycoprotein is a protease inhibitor. In the absence of α1AT, elastase released by lung macrophages, was not inhibited and lead to elastin breakdown and pulmonary problems ...

    Authors: Nazanin Pirooznia, Sadegh Hasannia, Seyed Shahriar Arab, Abbas Sahebghadam Lotfi, Mostafa Ghanei and Abbas Shali

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:36

    Content type: Research

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  20. Despite the rapid advancement of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), adverse events leading to deaths have been frequently reported in patients implanted with LVADs, including bleeding, infection, thrombo...

    Authors: ChiWei Ong, Socrates Dokos, BeeTing Chan, Einly Lim, Amr Al Abed, NoorAzuanBinAbu Osman, Suhaini Kadiman and Nigel H Lovell

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:35

    Content type: Research

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  21. Estimation of leaf productivity in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) is crucial for evaluating the ecological role of this important seagrass species. Although leaf marking techniques are widely used to obtain estimat...

    Authors: Héctor Echavarría-Heras, Elena Solana-Arellano, Cecilia Leal-Ramírez and Oscar Castillo

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:34

    Content type: Research

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  22. Haemodialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with end stage renal failure. It is becoming more appreciated that haemodialysis patients exhibit higher rates of multiple end organ ...

    Authors: MohamedTarek Eldehni, Aghogho Odudu and ChristopherWilliam McIntyre

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:33

    Content type: Research

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  23. The resistance of the bone against damage by repairing itself and adapting to environmental conditions is its most important property. These adaptive changes are regulated by physiological process commonly cal...

    Authors: Ahmed Idhammad, Abdelmounaïm Abdali and Noureddine Alaa

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:32

    Content type: Research

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  24. Knowledge of natural tumour growth is valuable for understanding tumour biology, optimising screening programs, prognostication, optimal scheduling of chemotherapy, and assessing tumour spread. However, mathem...

    Authors: Esmaeil Mehrara, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Viktor Johanson, Lars Kölby, Ragnar Hultborn and Peter Bernhardt

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:31

    Content type: Research

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  25. As the human infections with novel influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported from several different provinces in China, the pandemic potential of the virus has been questioned. The presence of human-to-human ...

    Authors: Hiroshi Nishiura, Kenji Mizumoto and Keisuke Ejima

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:30

    Content type: Research

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  26. As microtubules are essential for cell growth and division, its constituent protein β-tubulin has been a popular target for various treatments, including cancer chemotherapy. There are several isotypes of huma...

    Authors: Siamak Ravanbakhsh, Melissa Gajewski, Russell Greiner and Jack A Tuszynski

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:29

    Content type: Research

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  27. Determining the fate of inhaled contaminants in the human respiratory system has challenged scientists for years. Human and animal studies have provided some data, but there is a paucity of data for toxic contami...

    Authors: Jacky A Rosati Rowe, Ray Burton, George McGregor, Rob McCauley, Wei Tang and Richard Spencer

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:28

    Content type: Research

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  28. Somitogenesis is a fundamental characteristic feature of development in various animal embryos. Molecular evidence has proved that the Notch and Wnt pathways play important roles in regulating the process of s...

    Authors: Hong-yan Wang, Yan-xin Huang, Yun-feng Qi, Yu Zhang, Yong-li Bao, Lu-guo Sun, Li-hua Zheng, Yu-wei Zhang, Zhi-qiang Ma and Yu-xin Li

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:27

    Content type: Research

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  29. Incorporating structural elements of thermostable homologs can greatly improve the thermostability of a mesophilic protein. Despite the effectiveness of this method, applying it is often hampered. First, it re...

    Authors: Ming Liu, Hongqiu He and Jiguo Su

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:26

    Content type: Research

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  30. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, progressive liver disease, characterized by continuing hepatocellular inflammation and necrosis. A subgroup of AIH patients presents specific autoantibodies to soluble ...

    Authors: Alessandro Paiardini and Stefano Pascarella

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:25

    Content type: Research

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  31. blaVEB-1 is an integron-located extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene initially detected in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from south-east Asia. Several recent studies have reported that VEB-1-p...

    Authors: Abdelmonaem Messaoudi, Hatem Belguith and Jeannette Ben Hamida

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:22

    Content type: Research

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  32. The pathology of the Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is detected by a clinician through maneuvers consisting of a series of consecutive head turns that trigger the symptoms of vertigo in patient. A...

    Authors: Santiago Campos-Barreiro and Jesús López-Fidalgo

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:21

    Content type: Research

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  33. In vitro aggregating brain cell cultures containing all types of brain cells have been shown to be useful for neurotoxicological investigations. The cultures are used for the detection of nervous system‐specific ...

    Authors: Maria Renner, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich and Annette Kopp-Schneider

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:19

    Content type: Research

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  34. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognises unmethylated CpG DNA and activates a signalling cascade, leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-12 via the adaptor protein M...

    Authors: Wei Zhou, Yan Li, Xichun Pan, Yuan Gao, Beiping Li, Zhengliang Qiu, Long Liang, Hong Zhou and Junjie Yue

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:18

    Content type: Research

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  35. Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora is the causal agent of witches’ broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). When the mitochondrial genome of this fungus had been completely sequenced, ...

    Authors: Bruno Andrade, Catiane Souza and Aristóteles Góes-Neto

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:15

    Content type: Research

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  36. IMGT/Collier-de-Perles is a tool that allows the user to analyze and draw two-dimensional graphical representations (or IMGT Collier de Perles) of protein domains (e.g., hydropathy plots). The IMGT/Collier-de-...

    Authors: Dimitrios Vlachakis, Christos Feidakis, Vasileios Megalooikonomou and Sophia Kossida

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:14

    Content type: Software

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  37. Lead is a heavy metal and important environmental toxicant and nerve poison that can destruction many functions of the nervous system. Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead i...

    Authors: Shuangxing Hou, Lianfang Yuan, Pengpeng Jin, Bojun Ding, Na Qin, Li Li, Xuedong Liu, Zhongliang Wu, Gang Zhao and Yanchun Deng

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:13

    Content type: Research

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  38. According to Berenblum’s two-stage hypothesis, the first stage in carcinogenesis is the production of benign premalignant lesions. Between this initiation stage and the formation of a malignant tumor there is ...

    Authors: Richmond T Prehn and Liisa M Prehn

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:12

    Content type: Review

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  39. Spinal pattern generators (SPG) are neural networks in the spinal cord that do not require a central input from the brain to generate a motor output. We wanted to determine whether SPG can adapt to the changin...

    Authors: Sook-Yee Chong, Heiko Wagner and Arne Wulf

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:9

    Content type: Research

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