Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of living cells to electrets, electrostatic machines, permanent and electromagnets

From: A vector-free ECG interpretation with P, QRS & T waves as unbalanced transitions between stable configurations of the heart electric field during P-R, S-T & T-P segments

Comparison of field features Magnet and electromagnets Electret and electrostatic machines Living cells
Stable field maintained without loss of energy Only in permanent magnets In electrets due to static bound charges pH dependent cell protein bound charges
Energy dependent field Moving electric charges in electromagnets produce magnetic field In various electrostatic machines temporary electrostatic potentials can be accumulated and discharged Membrane layered charges depends on ion permeability and ion pumping
Rapid inversion of polarity or rapid depolarization and repolarization In electromagnets on pulsating or on alternative current Not easily achieved in electrostatic machines Electric field is temporary lost and reestablished during action potential
Dipole polarity Obligatory, there is no magnetic monopole Usually a dipole configuration that can be reduced to one charge by adequate grounding of one pole Pericellular electric field is positive or negative, only dipole polarization happens during partial depolarization of excitable cells