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Table 3 Model-Generated Ejection Time and Volume Indices During Various Phases of the Respiratory Cycle

From: Using a human cardiovascular-respiratory model to characterize cardiac tamponade and pulsus paradoxus

PPL (mmHg) Control
(Cardiac Period = 0.96 sec)
1000 ml Effusion
(Cardiac Period = 0.84 sec)
  RVET (sec) RVEDV (ml) RVSV (ml) RPEP (sec) LVET (sec) LVEDV (ml) LVSV (ml) LPEP(sec) RVET (sec) RVEDV (ml) RVSV (ml) RPEP (sec) LVET (sec) LVEDV (ml) LVSV (ml) LPEP (sec)
Exp. (-1) 0.37 133.2 77.7 0.12 0.29 134.1 98.3 0.21 0.23 54.3 42.0 0.11 0.25 92.9 64.6 0.20
Insp. (-10) 0.38 168.4 108.3 0.08 0.28 126.5 90.8 0.23 0.26 80.7 66.6 0.04 0.18 75.3 48.0 0.28
% Diff. 2.7 26.4 39.4 -33.3 -3.5 -6.0 -7.6 9.5 13.0 48.6 58.6 -63.6 -28.0 -19.0 -25.7 40.0
  1. RV and LV ejection time (RVET and LVET), RV and LV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV and LVEDV), RV and LV stroke volume (RVSV and LVSV), and RV and LV pre-ejection period (RPEP and LPEP) for expiration and inspiration. Percent difference with respect to expiration is given. Respiratory variation is increased with tamponade, with reduced ejection time, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume and increased pre-ejection period on inspiration seen in the left heart, but opposite effects in the right heart.