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Table 2 Urine solute excretion rates used to calculate urine concentrations [2, 9, 21]

From: Thermodynamic considerations in renal separation processes

Substance Reference range (mmol/day) Excretion rate used (mmol/day)
Sodium (Na + ) 100 – 260 180
Potassium (K + ) 25 – 100 63
Calcium (Ca2 + ) 2.5-7.5 5
Chloride (Cl  ) 80–250 165
Bicarbonate (HCO3 ) 9.9–16.6 13
Glucose 0 0
Urea 200–405 303
Creatinine 2 2
Total 419–1023 731