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Table 4 The estimated parameters of two simulations for the PSO algorithm

From: A modified particle swarm optimization algorithm for parameter estimation of a biological system

True parameters α i g i1 g i2 g i3 g i4 β i h i1 h i2 h i3 h i4 RMSE
PSO noise free measurement 0.4040
x 1 20.3569 0 0 −0.4444 0 10.3510 0.8602 0 0 0
x 2 8.3541 0.858 0 0 0 3.3464 0 1.1024 0 0
x 3 3.3513 0 1.1049 0 0 3.3478 0 0 0.8554 0.5437
x 4 2.3560 0.8419 0 0 0 6.3490 0 0 0 1.148
PSO noisy measurement with SNR 20 0.5160
x 1 16.0762 0 0 −0.3411 0 7.4571 0.9537 0 0 0
x 2 8.4461 1.9448 0 0 0 3.4396 0 1.1908 0 0
x 3 1.453 0 1.1971 0 0 3.4558 0 0 0.9496 0.6451
x 4 2.4434 0.9482 0 0 0 8.4386 0 0 0 1.2565