- Open Access
Computational simulation of the bone remodeling using the finite element method: an elastic-damage theory for small displacements
© Idhammad et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 24 March 2013
Accepted: 14 April 2013
Published: 13 May 2013
The resistance of the bone against damage by repairing itself and adapting to environmental conditions is its most important property. These adaptive changes are regulated by physiological process commonly called the bone remodeling. Better understanding this process requires that we apply the theory of elastic-damage under the hypothesis of small displacements to a bone structure and see its mechanical behavior.
The purpose of the present study is to simulate a two dimensional model of a proximal femur by taking into consideration elastic-damage and mechanical stimulus. Here, we present a mathematical model based on a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and we develop the variational formulation for the mechanical problem. Then, we implement our mathematical model into the finite element method algorithm to investigate the effect of the damage.
The results are consistent with the existing literature which shows that the bone stiffness drops in damaged bone structure under mechanical loading.
Bone is the main constituent of the skeletal system enable to maintain substantially the shape of the body; to protect the internal organs; to store minerals and lipids; to participate in blood cell production; and to assist body movements by transmitting the force of muscular contraction from one part to another .
As a living tissue, bone is able to optimize its structure by redistributing its density under the influence of external forces. Since this publication of Wolff, many theories describing the redistributing of the bone density have been proposed [2–4].
This process, called bone remodeling, was formally developed later by Huiskes et al. using the concept that bone remodeling is induced by a local mechanical signal which activate the regulating cells and cause local bone adaptations [5, 6].
Therefore, better understanding of bone remodeling process helps to prevent fractures and other kinds of diseases. Several works have been made to relate bone remodeling process to a mathematical point of view, and thereafter perform some computational simulations [6, 7].
The overall aim of this study is to numerically simulate the proximal femur using an elastic-damage theory for small displacements. First, we describe the mechanical problem and we derive its variational formulation. Next, we propose a bone remodeling algorithm and we solve a two-dimensional femur problem by using the finite element method.
Finally, some two-dimensional computational simulations are presented, and the results are in clear agreement with those reported in literature.
Geometry and material properties
where M and γ are positive constants.
Elastic-damaged bone remodeling theory
The femur can be remodeled in response to external loads to give greater bone matrix in regions that are subjected to higher levels of stress. These external loads induce changes in the mechanical fields and damage to the femur, such as macro cracks or micro cracks [14, 15].
This concept of damage was developed in the 1990s by the scientific community and particularly by Kachanov . The elastic-damage model used in this contribution was initially developed by the French school and notably that of Jean Lemaitre [17, 18]. It describes the constitutive behavior of the material by introducing a scalar variable D which quantifies the influence of microcracking.
D is the degree of damage with 0 ≤ D ≤ 1
E is Young’s modulus of undamaged elasticity
ρmin the minimal density corresponding to the reabsorbed bone
ρmax the maximal density of cortical bone
Moreover, let ρ0 denote the initial bone density
D0 is the initial damage
t is the time
fd is the fatigue life of the bone devoid of the remodeling
Let , be a nonempty open bounded domain in with a Lipschitz-continuous boundary Γ = ∂ Ω. The boundary is split into two disjoint parts Γ1 and Γ2 where Γ1 is a fixed part of the border on which the femur is fixed, and Γ2 is also a part of the border, on which the forces F (F1, F2) are applied.
Everywhere below we use to denote the space of second order symmetric tensors and denote by n the unit outer normal vector to Γ. To simplify, we consider that the body occupying the set isn’t being acted upon by a volume force of density f. Subsequent to modeling, both loads and boundary conditions are defined.
Here ∇ stands for the gradient operator.
Div represents the divergence operator
Many laws of bone remodeling have been published in the world mainly targeting the evolution of the bone density [5, 6, 20]. We adopt the law suggested by Huiskes et al. who used the strain energy density as the stimulus signal to control bone remodeling process [5, 6, 20, 22].
B, s and K are experimental constants
Let: be the double contraction of two tensors which yields a scalar.
Finally, equation system of the problem is defined as follows.
The variational formulation of this model consists in a variational equation for the displacement field.
Where v is the test functions.
∆t is the time step size
The proposed algorithm
Step 1. Define the global model: geometry, load conditions and initial bone density distribution. The remodeling is considered for initial model with a uniform density distribution of ρ0 = 0.8 g/cm3.
Step 2. Determine Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and Lame’s coefficients.
Step 3. Calculate the displacement, by solving the linear variational equation of the displacement field.
Step 4. Evaluate the strain energy density U at each discrete location using the finite element method.
Step 5. Justify if the mechanical stimulus would cause bone apposition, bone resorption or equilibrium. Then, update the bone density.
Step 6. Update the damage.
Step 7. Check for convergence. The convergence criterion is imposed according to the change in mass during the iterative process. The final topology is obtained when the convergence criterion is satisfied; otherwise, the iterative process continues from Step 2.
Results and discussion
As is well-known, it is of significance to explore the biomechanical behavior of bone. This work is aimed to simulate an elastic-damage femur in order to provide useful information on the geometrical topology and material properties of bone.
ρmin = 0.01 g/cm3, ρmax = 1.74 g/cm3, K = 0.004 J/g, s = 0.1, ρ0 = 0.8 g/cm3, γ = 3, B = 1( g/cm3)2(MPa. UT)- 1, D0 = 0.8, fd = 3 years, f = 0 N/m2, Δt = 10- 5UT, υ = 0.3, M = 3790 (Mpa)( g/cm3)- 3, (F1(case1) = 1000 N, F2(case1) = 1200 N), (F1(case2) = 1200 N, F2(case2) = 1500 N).
Several computational simulations are developed concerning bone remodeling of a proximal femur during mechanical stress, assuming the imposition of an elastic-damage in the domain. Also, we take a steady force and fixed constraint as the boundary condition of this model. The proposed algorithm described before is implemented in FreeFEM++ (see ), executing multiple simulations for different load cases. Two load cases are considered to evaluate their effect on the density distribution of bone.
Shown in Figure 4(a) is the undamaged bone density distribution from initial time to final time. It can be seen that mechanical loading triggers the process of bone remodeling particularly in the area close to the load. In this area, the bone density is high compared to other areas.
Figure 4(b) plots the changes in the density distribution of damaged bone from initial time to final time. It results the increase in the rate of density during the initial time, and after that it gradually decreased. But it never reaches the density of an undamaged bone.
The results of the study demonstrate that in the area close to the mechanical load, the bone density is higher than normal; and in the area remote from the mechanical load, the bone density is lower than other areas. The results are similar to those obtained by Li et al. , Sharma et al.  and Li et al. .
Comparing Figures 4 and 5, it is possible to observe that the decrease in bone density further leads to decrease in bone stiffness in terms of Young’s modulus, so to an increased risk of fracture. The same results were observed in the works of Tomaszewski et al. .
From this comparison, we showed that in a bone, the density decreases in a damaged structure at the initial time, then it can repair the damage itself to some extent at the final time. But this can only happen if the loading isn't so high that the self-repair mechanism can keep pace with the increasing damage [7, 14, 29, 30].
The self-repair mechanism in this case is taken into account only the mechanical stimulus, although existing of many biological factors such as immunological, hormonal and haemodynamical stimulus; thus varying from one individual to another [24, 27, 31].
The work presented here may be applied to different models as well as to studies of orthopedic biomaterials and be helpful in further investigations.
In the present study, a model simulating elastic-damage bone remodeling is presented by using a two-dimensional mathematical model and a numerical technique based on the finite element method. The effects of both strain and damage in bone structure have been examined.
The results presented in this paper show that in the solicited area, the bone density is important; and allowed us to observe a good agreement with literature findings.
Hence, from a biomechanical perspective it is better to simulate three dimensional femur bone by using the finite element method in order to obtain better understanding of the behavior of the bone.
We are particularly grateful to the editor in chief, Dr. Paul S. Agutter, for his insightful suggestions and support.
- Cowin SC: Bone Mechanics Handbook. 2001, USA: CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2Google Scholar
- Wolff J: Das Gesetz der Transformation der Knochen. 1892, Hirschwald: Hirschwald BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Frost HM: The Laws of Bone Structure. 1964, Springfield: Thomas CCGoogle Scholar
- Firoozbakhsh K, Cowin SC: An analytical model of Pauwels’ functional adaptation mechanism in bone. J Biomech Eng. 1981, 103: 246-252. 10.1115/1.3138288.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mullender M, Huiskes R, Weinans H: A physiological approach to the simulation of bone remodeling as self organizational control process. J Biomech. 1994, 27: 1389-1394. 10.1016/0021-9290(94)90049-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huiskes R, Weinans H, van Rietbergen B: The relationship between stress shielding and bone resorption around total hip stems and the effects of flexible materials. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1992, 274: 124-134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Doblaré M, Garcıa JM, Gomez MJ: Modelling bone tissue fracture and healing: a review. Eng Fract Mech. 2004, 71: 1809-1840. 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2003.08.003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martin RB: Fatigue damage, remodeling, and the minimization of skeletal weight. J Theor Biol. 2003, 220: 271-276. 10.1006/jtbi.2003.3148.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weinans H, Huiskes R, Grootenboer HJ: The behavior of adaptive bone-remodeling simulation models. J Biomech. 1992, 25: 1425-1441. 10.1016/0021-9290(92)90056-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jacobs CR, Marc EL, Gary SB, Juan CS, Dennis RC: Numerical instabilities in bone remodeling simulations: The advances of a node-based finite element approach. J Biomech. 1994, 28: 449-459.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Op Den Buijs J, Dragomir-Daescu D: Validated finite element models of the proximal femur using two-dimensional projected geometry and bone density. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2011, 104: 74-168.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Currey JD: The effect of porosity and mineral content on theYoung’s modulus elasticity of compact bone. J Biomech. 1988, 21: 131-139. 10.1016/0021-9290(88)90006-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carter DR, Hayes WC: The compressive behavior of bones as a two-phase porous structure. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977, 59: 954-962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taylor D, Hazenberg JG, Lee TC: Living with cracks: Damage and repair in human bone. Nature Materials. 2007, 6: 263-268. 10.1038/nmat1866.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dunlop JWC, Hartmann MA, Brechet YJ, Fratzl P, Weinkamer R: New suggestions for the mechanical control of bone remodeling. Calcif Tissue Int. 2009, 85: 45-54. 10.1007/s00223-009-9242-x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kachanov LM: Introduction to Continuum Damage Mechanics. 1986, The Netherlands: Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff PublishersView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lemaitre J, Chaboche JL: Mechanics of solid materials. 1990, UK: Cambridge University PressView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lemaitre J, Desmorat R: Engineering Damage Mechanics. 2005, Berlin: SpringerGoogle Scholar
- Idhammad A, Abdali A, Bussy P: Numerical simulation of the process of bone remodeling in the context of damaged elastic. Int J Adv Sci Tech. 2011, 37: 87-98.Google Scholar
- Idhammad A, Abdali A: On a new law of bone remodeling based on damage elasticity: a thermodynamic approach. Theor Biol Med Model. 2012, 9: 51-10.1186/1742-4682-9-51.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang HF: Theory of Linear Poroelasticity with Applications to Geomechanics and Hydrogeology. 2000, NJ: Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
- Tovar A: Bone Remodeling as a Hybrid Cellular Automaton Optimization Process. 2004, USA: PhD thesis, University of Notre DameGoogle Scholar
- Li W, Lin D, Rungsiyakull C, Zhou S, Swain M, Li Q: Finite element based bone remodeling and resonance frequency analysis for osseointegration assessment of dental implants. Finite Elem Anal Des. 2011, 47: 898-905. 10.1016/j.finel.2011.03.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sharma GB, Debski RE, McMahon PJ, Robertson DD: Adaptive glenoid bone remodeling simulation. J Biomech. 2009, 42: 1460-1468. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.04.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coelho PG, Fernandes PR, Rodrigues HC, Cardoso JB, Guedes JM: Numerical modeling of bone tissue adaptation - A hierarchical approach for bone apparent density and trabecular structure. J Biomech. 2009, 42: 830-837. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.01.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hecht F, Le Hyaric A, Ohtsuka K, Pironneau O: Freefem++, finite element software. [http://www.freefem.org/ff++/]
- Li J, Li H, Shi L, Fok AS, Ucer C, Devlin H, Horner K, Silikas N: A mathematical model for simulating the bone remodeling process under mechanical stimulus. Dent Mater. 2007, 23: 1073-1078. 10.1016/j.dental.2006.10.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tomaszewski PK, Verdonschot N, Bulstra SK, Rietman JS, Verkerke GJ: Simulated bone remodeling around two types of osseointegrated implants for direct fixation of upper-leg prostheses. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012, 15: 167-175.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hambli R, Lespessailles E, Benhamou CL: Integrated remodeling-to-fracture finite element model of human proximal femur behavior. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013, 17: 89-106.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee TC, Staines A, Taylor D: Bone adaptation to load: microdamage as a stimulus for bone remodelling. J Anat. 2002, 201: 437-446. 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00123.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pandorf T, Haddi A, Wirtz DC, Lammerding J, Forst R, Wechert D: Numerical simulation of adaptive bone remodeling. J Theor Appl Mech. 1999, 37: 639-658.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.