Table 2 Mean relative errors (MREs) as a function of experimental errors. The MREs of the S-system models and the original models were measured in case study 2. The time-course data obtained from the models included the perturbation-of-state variable in order to examine the difference in dynamic response between the S-system model and the original Michaelis-Menten model. The Jacobian and steady-state fluxes were reproduced with a 100% numerical error. Numerical errors for the Jacobian were inserted equally into all the elements of the Jacobian. X1was the target of the perturbation. The time-course data were obtained from the S-system model where X1was perturbed by an increase of 50%. Ten time points were sampled for the calculation, with an interval of 0.5 s between them. The MRE was calculated from the time-course data in the S-system model and the original Michaelis-Menten model. In the case of the branched biochemical pathway (case study 2), the Jacobian was increased by 100%, and the three steady-state fluxes, J1–2, J3–5, and J4–6represent the flux through V1 and V2, the flux through V3 and V5 and the flux through V 4 and V6, respectively.