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  1. Lead is a heavy metal and important environmental toxicant and nerve poison that can destruction many functions of the nervous system. Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead i...

    Authors: Shuangxing Hou, Lianfang Yuan, Pengpeng Jin, Bojun Ding, Na Qin, Li Li, Xuedong Liu, Zhongliang Wu, Gang Zhao and Yanchun Deng

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:13

    Content type: Research

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  2. According to Berenblum’s two-stage hypothesis, the first stage in carcinogenesis is the production of benign premalignant lesions. Between this initiation stage and the formation of a malignant tumor there is ...

    Authors: Richmond T Prehn and Liisa M Prehn

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:12

    Content type: Review

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  3. Spinal pattern generators (SPG) are neural networks in the spinal cord that do not require a central input from the brain to generate a motor output. We wanted to determine whether SPG can adapt to the changin...

    Authors: Sook-Yee Chong, Heiko Wagner and Arne Wulf

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:9

    Content type: Research

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  4. Experiments have shown that the intracellular pH of many cells rises to a maximum at the onset of mitosis, subsequently decreasing 0.3 to 0.5 pH units by the end of mitosis. This result, and observations that ...

    Authors: L John Gagliardi and Daniel H Shain

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:8

    Content type: Commentary

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  5. There are two main reasons for drug withdrawals at the various levels of the development path – hepatic and cardiac toxicity. The latter one is mainly connected with the proarrhythmic potency and according to ...

    Authors: Kamil Fijorek, Nikunjkumar Patel, Łukasz Klima, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz and Sebastian Polak

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:7

    Content type: Research

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  6. The surgical inflammatory response can be a type of high-grade acute stress response associated with an increasingly complex trophic functional system for using oxygen. This systemic neuro-immune-endocrine res...

    Authors: Maria-Angeles Aller, Jose-Ignacio Arias, Isabel Prieto, Carlos Gilsanz, Ana Arias, Heping Yang and Jaime Arias

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:6

    Content type: Review

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  7. The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) system is a demand control system, with the demand coming from the organism, since the products of the common myeloid and lymphoid progenitor (CMP, CLP respectively) cells are...

    Authors: Marc Mangel and Michael B Bonsall

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:5

    Content type: Research

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  8. During the very early stage of the 2009 pandemic, mass chemoprophylaxis was implemented as part of containment measure. The purposes of the present study were to systematically review the retrospective studies...

    Authors: Kenji Mizumoto, Hiroshi Nishiura and Taro Yamamoto

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:4

    Content type: Research

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  9. Schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs worldwide and can be difficult to diagnose. It is the foremost neurological disorder leading to suicide among patients in both developed and underdevel...

    Authors: Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Naureen Aslam Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:3

    Content type: Research

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  10. Lung cancer is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Major signalling pathways that could play significant role in lung cancer therapy include (1) Growth promoting pathways (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/...

    Authors: Syeda Naqsh e Zahra, Naureen Aslam Khattak and Asif Mir

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2013 10:1

    Content type: Research

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  11. The theory of speciation is dominated by adaptationist thinking, with less attention to mechanisms that do not affect species adaptation. Degeneracy – the imperfect specificity of interactions between diverse ...

    Authors: Nicholas Atamas, Michael S Atamas, Faina Atamas and Sergei P Atamas

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:56

    Content type: Research

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  12. Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol) is the most widely used over-the-counter or prescription painkiller in the world. Acetaminophen is metabolized in the liver where a toxic byproduct is produced that ca...

    Authors: Rotem Ben-Shachar, Yifei Chen, Shishi Luo, Catherine Hartman, Michael Reed and H Frederik Nijhout

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:55

    Content type: Research

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  13. To analyze the p42.3 gene expression in gastric cancer (GC) cell, find the relationship between protein structure and function, establish the regulatory network of p42.3 protein molecule and then to obtain the...

    Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Chunlei Lu, Zhigang Shang, Rui Xing, Li Shi and Youyong Lv

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:53

    Content type: Research

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  14. This paper analyzes a new semiphysiological ionic model, used recently to study reexitations and reentry in cardiac tissue [I.R. Cantalapiedra et al, PRE 82 011907 (2010)]. The aim of the model is to reproduce ac...

    Authors: Angelina Peñaranda, Inma R Cantalapiedra, Jean Bragard and Blas Echebarria

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:50

    Content type: Research

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  15. A detailed theoretical model that combines the conventional viscoelastic continuum description of cell motion with a dynamic active stress is presented. The model describes the ameboid cells movement comprisin...

    Authors: Mehrnush Mehrayin, Farhad Farmanzad, Masoud Mozafari, Daryoosh Vashaee and Lobat Tayebi

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:49

    Content type: Research

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  16. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of the electromechanical behavior of the rat ventricular myocyte to investigate the various factors influencing its contractile response.

    Authors: Abhilash Krishna, Miguel Valderrábano, Philip T Palade and John W Clark Jr

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:48

    Content type: Research

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  17. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) provides a...

    Authors: Ya-jing Guo, Jiang Chen, Xin-gui Xiong, Dan Wu, Hao Zhu and Qing-hua Liang

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:47

    Content type: Research

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  18. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases with increased blood glucose concentration as the main symptom. This can be caused by a relative or a total lack of insulin which is produced by the β‐cells in t...

    Authors: Martina Gallenberger, Wolfgangzu Castell, Burkhard A Hense and Christina Kuttler

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:46

    Content type: Research

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  19. Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobici...

    Authors: Mohamed Khayet and Victoria Fernández

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:45

    Content type: Research

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  20. The H1N1 influenza A virus has been circulating in the human population for over 95 years, first manifesting itself in the pandemic of 1917–1918. Initial mortality was extremely high, but dropped exponentially...

    Authors: Robert W Carter and John C Sanford

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:42

    Content type: Research

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  21. This paper presents a computational model that describes the growth of the bone as a function of the proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. We have included the effects of the mecha...

    Authors: Carlos A Narváez-Tovar and Diego A Garzón-Alvarado

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:41

    Content type: Research

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  22. The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals a...

    Authors: Ray Greek and Mark J Rice

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:40

    Content type: Research

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  23. Develop and validate particular, concrete, and abstract yet plausible in silico mechanistic explanations for large intra- and interindividual variability observed for eleven bioequivalence study participants. ...

    Authors: Sean HJ Kim, Andre J Jackson, Rim Hur and C Anthony Hunt

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:39

    Content type: Research

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  24. We investigated the relationship of End-to-end distance between VH and VL with different peptide linkers and the activity of single-chain antibodies by computer-aided simulation. First, we developed (G4S)n (where...

    Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Shanhong Liu, Zhigang Shang, Li Shi and Jun Yun

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:38

    Content type: Research

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  25. Authors: Piernicola Pedicini, Rocchina Caivano, Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa, Lidia Strigari, Barbara Vischioni, Daniela Alterio, Marta Cremonesi, Francesca Botta, Antonio Nappi, Giuseppina Improta, Giovanni Storto, Alba Fiorentino, Marcello Benassi, Roberto Orecchia and Vincenzo Fusco

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:37

    Content type: Erratum

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:23

  26. The invasion-metastasis cascade of cancer involves a process of parallel progression. A biological interface (module) in which cells is linked with ECM (extracellular matrix) by CAMs (cell adhesion molecules) ...

    Authors: Feng-Chou Tsai, Mei-Chuan Wang, Jeng-Fan Lo, Chih-Ming Chou and Yi-Lu Lin

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:36

    Content type: Research

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  27. Discovering new biomarkers has a great role in improving early diagnosis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The experimental determination of biomarkers needs a lot of time and money. This motivates this work ...

    Authors: Nagwan M Abdel Samee, Nahed H Solouma and Yasser M Kadah

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:34

    Content type: Research

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  28. Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key event in tumour metastasis and invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that degrade most of the components o...

    Authors: Takashi Saitou, Keiko Itano, Daisuke Hoshino, Naohiko Koshikawa, Motoharu Seiki, Kazuhisa Ichikawa and Takashi Suzuki

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:33

    Content type: Research

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  29. The human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is routinely applied to support recovery of granulopoiesis during the course of cytotoxic chemotherapies. However, optimal use of the drug is largely unk...

    Authors: Markus Scholz, Sibylle Schirm, Marcus Wetzler, Christoph Engel and Markus Loeffler

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:32

    Content type: Research

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  30. The role of the immune system in tumor progression has been a subject for discussion for many decades. Numerous studies suggest that a low immune response might be beneficial, if not necessary, for tumor growt...

    Authors: Heiko Enderling, Lynn Hlatky and Philip Hahnfeldt

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:31

    Content type: Research

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  31. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are the high-risk, sexually transmitted infectious causes of most cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) or cancers. While efficacious vaccines to reduce the sexua...

    Authors: Misaki Wayengera

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:30

    Content type: Research

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  32. This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship betw...

    Authors: John F Moxnes, Kjell Hausken and Øyvind Sandbakk

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:29

    Content type: Research

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  33. While many branches of natural science have embraced group theory reaping enormous advantages for their respective fields, clinical medicine lacks to date such applications. Here we intend to explain a prototy...

    Authors: Jitsuki Sawamura, Shigeru Morishita and Jun Ishigooka

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:28

    Content type: Research

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  34. Super-macromolecular complexes play many important roles in eukaryotic cells. Classical structural biological studies focus on their complicated molecular structures, physical interactions and biochemical modi...

    Authors: Yue Zhao and Qimin Zhan

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:26

    Content type: Review

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  35. To estimate the effects of heterogeneity on tumour cell sensitivity to radiotherapy combined with radiosensitizing agents attributable to differences in expression levels of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr

    Authors: Piernicola Pedicini, Rocchina Caivano, Barbara Alicia Jereczek-Fossa, Lidia Strigari, Barbara Vischioni, Daniela Alterio, Marta Cremonesi, Francesca Botta, Antonio Nappi, Giuseppina Improta, Giovanni Storto, Marcello Benassi and Roberto Orecchia

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:37

  36. Medical records accumulate data concerning patient health and the natural history of disease progression. However, methods to mine information systematically in a form other than an electronic health record ar...

    Authors: Eric Aslakson, Smadar Szekely, Suzanne D Vernon, Lucinda Bateman, Jan Baumbach and Yaki Setty

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:22

    Content type: Research

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  37. Human milk samples contain microvesicles similar to the retroviruses. These microvesicles contain mRNA transcripts and possess reverse transcriptase activity. They contain about 14,000 transcripts representing...

    Authors: M Kemal Irmak, Yesim Oztas and Emin Oztas

    Citation: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012 9:20

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

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